The Present

  There are four present tense forms in English:

Tense Form
Present indefinite: I work
Present continuous: I am working
Present perfect: I have worked
Present perfect continuous: I have been working

  PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE

     Verb ৰ ৰুপটো যদি “খাওঁ”, “খোৱা”, “খাৱ”, “খা”, নাইবা “খাওঁক” ৰুপত থাকে, ইংৰাজীত এনেবোৰ বাক্যক Present Indefinite Tense ৰ বাক্য বুলি কোৱা হয় । The  present indefinite  is a verb tense with two main uses. We use the simple present tense when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly. (বৰ্তমান কোনো এটা কমা কৰি থকা বুজাবলৈ আৰু অভ্যাস বশতঃ কৰা কামবিলাকৰ বিষয়ে present indefinite ত কোৱা হয় )

(ক) মই খাওঁ                       —      I eat.

(খ) তুমি খোৱা                     —      You eat.

(গ) তই খাৱ                       —      You eat.

(ঘ) তেওঁ খায়                      —      He eats.*

(ঙ) তেওঁলোকে খায়             —      They eat.

*Present indefinite tense ত subject যদি third person singular number হয়, তেনেহ’লে verb ৰ লগত s নাইবা es যোগ কৰিব লাগে । Depending on the person, the present indefinite  tense is formed by using the root form or by adding ‑s or ‑es to the end.

  1. Rana reads in class v. (Read+s=reads)
  2. He comes here every day. (Come+s=comes)
  3. The bus goes to Mangaldai every day. (Go+es=goes)

 

ঠিক সেইদৰে subject টো যদি third person singular number হয়, তেনেহ’লে have ৰ সলনি has হয় ।

  1. Arup has a pen.
  2. She has gone.
  3. It has been raining since yesterday.*

*It ক third person singular number বুলি ধৰি লোৱা হয় ।

PERSON

Person তিনিবিধ ।

First person:                                    I, We.

Second person:                                 you.

Third person:                                      যাৰ বিষয়ে কোৱা হয়, সেয়াই   third person.

He is my brother, Sugar is sweet, The boy were playing.

Pranjal is reading, Guwahati is beautiful.

NUMBER

Number দুইবিধ । Singular number আৰু Plural number. এটা বস্তু, এজন মানুহ, এখন ঠাই – মুঠতে এটা হ’লে singular হয় আৰু এটাতকৈ বেছি হ’লেই plural হয় ।

Singular Number – I, he, she, it, the boy, sugar, water, God, the school etc.

Plural Number – We, they, the girls, the schools etc.

Uncountable noun বিলাকক আমি third person singular number বুলি ধৰি লওঁ – rain, dust, air, love, water etc. গতিকে ইহতৰ লগত is/was/has ইত্যাদি ব্যৱহাৰ হয় ।

First-person singular: I write

Second-person singular: You write

Third-person singular: He/she/it writes (note the ‑s)

First-person plural: We write

Second-person plural: You write

Third-person plural: They write

ONE TIME ACTION AND HABITUAL ACTION

Habitually অভ্যাস বশতঃ কৰা কামবিলাকৰ বিষয়ে present indefinite ত কোৱা হয় ।

I often go to their home.

He eats rice in the morning.

I go to school every day.

Your sister speaks English well.

Birds fly in the sky.

He attends the office daily at ten.

The Present Indefinite Tense is used often with adverbs of frequency like ‘often’, ’usually’, ’generally’, ’daily’, ’once a week’, ‘every month’, ‘every year’ etc.

UNIVERSAL TRUTH

God is good.

The earth is round.

Man is mortal.

Present Indefinite Tense ৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত dose ব্যৱহাৰ:

     The formula for asking a question in the  present indefinite  is dose + [subject] + [root form of verb] Subject যদি third person singular number হয় আৰু বাক্যটোত যদি auxiliary verb নাথাকে তেনেহ’ল present indefinite ত main verb ৰ লগত s নাইবা es যোগ দিব লাগে । এনেকুৱা এটা বাক্যক প্ৰশ্নলৈ ৰুপান্তৰিত কৰিবলৈ হ’লে বাক্যটোৰ সন্মুখত dose বহুৱাব লাগে আৰু main verb ৰ লগত থকা s নাইবা es উঠাই দিব লাগে ।

He comes here every day.              Does he come here every day?

Raju lives in Guwahati.                   Dose Raju live in Guwahati?

His sister plays tennis.                      Dose his sister play tennis?

NEGATIVE WITH DOESN’T

    The formula for making a  present indefinite verb negative is does + not + [root form of verb]. You can also use the contraction  doesn’t instead of  does not. Third person singular number ৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত doesn’t হব । আৰু main verb ৰ লগত থকা s নাইবা es উঠাই দিব লাগে ।

Raju comes every day.                    Raju doesn’t come every day.

She likes sweets.                               She doesn’t like sweets.

Present Indefinite Tense ৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত do ব্যৱহাৰ:

Subject যদি third person singular number নহয়, তেতিয়া এনে বাক্যক present indefinite tense ৰ sentence ক প্ৰশ্নলৈ ৰুপান্তৰিত কৰিবলৈ হ’লে বাক্যটোৰ সন্মুখত do বহুৱাব লাগে ।

You like music.                                            Do you like music?

They live here.                                             Do they live here?

NEGATIVE WITH DON’T

I like sweets.                                    I don’t like sweets.

We live in Guwahati.                    We don’t live in Guwahati.

You know.                                          You don’t know.

************

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