• The social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, or even entire societies.
  • Such networks provide an extremely suitable space to instantly share multimedia information between individuals and their neighbors in the social graph.

History Of Social Networking

  • In the late 1800s, both Emile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tonnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of Social groups.
  • In the early 1930s Dr. Jacob Levi Moreno introduced the sonogram
  • In 1954, anthropologist  J. A. Barnes used the phrase “social network” to describe the complex relationships .

 Evolution graph of a social network:  Barabasi  Model

  • The Barabási –Albert (BA) model is an algorithm for generating random scale-free networks using a preferential  attachment  mechanism.
  • Scale-free networks are widely observed in natural and human-made systems, including the Internet, the world wide web, citation networks, and some social networks. The algorithm is named for its inventors Albert-Laszlo Barabasi and Reka Albert.

Social networks and science

  • Julia Porter Liebeskind et al. have published a study on how new biotechnology firms are using social networking sites to share exchanges in scientific knowledge
  • Social networking is allowing scientific groups to expand their knowledge base and share ideas, and without these new means of communicating their theories might become “isolated and irrelevant”.

Social networks and education

  • Social networks and their educational uses are of interest to many researchers. According to Livingstone and Brake (2010), “Social Networking Sites, like much else on the Internet, represent a moving target for researchers and policy makers.

Social Networking service

  •  A social networking service is a platform to build social networks  or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections.
  •  Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, and interests with people in their network.

Windows Run Commands

These run commands are available for almost all settings available in Windows control panel.
Note : most part of these commands are compatible with Windows 7, Vista e Windows XP.
Funzioni Comandi
Open Documents Folder documents
Open Videos folder videos
Open Downloads Folder downloads
Open Favorites Folder favorites
Open Recent Folder recent
Open Recent Folder logoff
Open Pictures Folder pictures
Windows Sideshow control.exe /name Microsoft.WindowsSideshow
Windows CardSpace control.exe /name Microsoft.cardspace
Windows Anytime Upgrade WindowsAnytimeUpgradeui
Taskbar and Start Menu control.exe /name Microsoft.TaskbarandStartMenu
Troubleshooting control.exe /name Microsoft.Troubleshooting
User Accounts control.exe /name Microsoft.UserAccounts
Adding a new Device devicepairingwizard
Add Hardware Wizard hdwwiz
Advanced User Accounts netplwiz
Advanced User Accounts azman.msc
Backup and Restore sdclt
Bluetooth File Transfer fsquirt
Calculator calc
Certificates certmgr.msc
Change Computer Performance Settings systempropertiesperformance
Change Data Execution Prevention Settings systempropertiesdataexecutionprevention
Change Data Execution Prevention Settings printui
Character Map charmap
ClearType Tuner cttune
Color Management colorcpl
Command Prompt cmd
Component Services comexp.msc
Component Services dcomcnfg
Computer Management compmgmt.msc
Computer Management compmgmtlauncher
Connessione proiettore di rete netproj
Connect to a Projector displayswitch
Control Panel control
Create A Shared Folder Wizard shrpubw
Create a System Repair Disc recdisc
Credential Backup and Restore Wizard credwiz
Data Execution Prevention systempropertiesdataexecutionprevention
Date and Time timedate.cpl
Default Location locationnotifications
Device Manager devmgmt.msc
Device Manager hdwwiz.cpl
Device Pairing Wizard devicepairingwizard
Diagnostics Troubleshooting Wizard msdt
Digitizer Calibration Tool tabcal
DirectX Diagnostic Tool dxdiag
Disk Cleanup cleanmgr
Disk Defragmenter dfrgui
Disk Management diskmgmt.msc
Display dpiscaling
Display Color Calibration dccw
Display Switch displayswitch
DPAPI Key Migration Wizard dpapimig
Driver Verifier Manager verifier
Ease of Access Center utilman
EFS Wizard rekeywiz
Event Viewer eventvwr.msc
Fax Cover Page Editor fxscover
File Signature Verification sigverif
Font Viewer fontview
Game Controllers joy.cpl
Getting Started gettingstarted
IExpress Wizard iexpress
Getting Started irprops.cpl
Install or Uninstall Display Languages lusrmgr
Internet Explorer iexplore
Internet Options inetcpl.cpl
iSCSI Initiator Configuration Tool iscsicpl
Language Pack Installer lpksetup
Local Group Policy Editor gpedit.msc
Local Security Policy secpol.msc
Local Users and Groups lusrmgr.msc
Location Activity locationnotifications
Magnifier magnify
Malicious Software Removal Tool mrt
Manage Your File Encryption Certificates rekeywiz
Math Input Panel mip
Microsoft Management Console mmc
Microsoft Support Diagnostic Tool msdt
Mouse main.cpl
NAP Client Configuration napclcfg.msc
Narrator narrator
Network Connections ncpa.cpl
New Scan Wizard wiaacmgr
Notepad notepad
ODBC Data Source Administrator odbcad32
ODBC Driver Configuration odbcconf
On-Screen Keyboard osk
Paint mspaint
Pen and Touch tabletpc.cpl
People Near Me collab.cpl
Performance Monitor perfmon.msc
Performance Options systempropertiesperformance
Phone and Modem telephon.cpl
Phone Dialer dialer
Power Options powercfg.cpl
Presentation Settings presentationsettings
Print Management printmanagement.msc
Printer Migration printbrmui
Printer User Interface printui
Private Character Editor eudcedit
Problem Steps Recorder psr
Programs and Features appwiz.cpl
Protected Content Migration dpapimig
Region and Language intl.cpl
Registry Editor regedit
Registry Editor 32 regedt32
Remote Access Phonebook rasphone
Remote Desktop Connection mstsc
Resource Monitor resmon
Resultant Set of Policy rsop.msc
SAM Lock Tool syskey
Screen Resolution desk.cpl
Securing the Windows Account Database syskey
Services services.msc
Set Program Access and Computer Defaults computerdefaults
Share Creation Wizard shrpubw
Shared Folders fsmgmt.msc
Snipping Tool snippingtool
Sound mmsys.cpl
Sound recorder soundrecorder
SQL Server Client Network Utility cliconfg
Sticky Notes stikynot
Stored User Names and Passwords credwiz
Sync Center mobsync
System Configuration msconfig
System Configuration Editor sysedit
System Information msinfo32
System Properties sysdm.cpl
System Properties (Advanced Tab) systempropertiesadvanced
System Properties (Computer Name Tab) systempropertiescomputername
System Properties (Hardware Tab) systempropertieshardware
System Properties (Remote Tab) systempropertiesremote
System Properties (System Protection Tab) systempropertiesprotection
System Restore rstrui
Task Manager taskmgr
Task Scheduler taskschd.msc
Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Management tpm.msc
User Account Control Settings useraccountcontrolsettings
Utility Manager utilman
Version Reporter Applet winver
Volume Mixer sndvol
Windows Action Center wscui.cpl
Windows Activation Client slui
Windows Anytime Upgrade Results windowsanytimeupgraderesults
Windows CardSpace infocardcpl.cpl
Windows Disc Image Burning Tool isoburn
Windows DVD Maker dvdmaker
Windows Easy Transfer migwiz
Windows Explorer explorer
Windows Fax and Scan wfs
Windows Features optionalfeatures
Windows Firewall firewall.cpl
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security wf.msc
Windows Journal journal
Windows Media Player wmplayer
Windows Memory Diagnostic Scheduler mdsched
Windows Mobility Center mblctr
Windows Picture Acquisition Wizard wiaacmgr
Windows PowerShell powershell
Windows PowerShell ISE powershell_ise
Windows Remote Assistance msra
Windows Repair Disc recdisc
Windows Script Host wscript
Windows Update wuapp
Windows Update Standalone Installer wusa
Versione Windows winver
WMI Management wmimgmt.msc
WordPad write
XPS Viewer xpsrchvw


Tense’ ৰ সন্মন্ধ হ’ল verb ৰ লগত । এটা বাক্য কোন tense ত আছে, সেই কথাটো আমি বাক্যটোৰ verb টোলৈ লক্ষ্য কৰিলেই গম পাওঁ । যেনে—

I go to school every day.

I went to school yesterday.

I shall go to school tomorrow.

Verbৰ ৰুপ নাইবা form সলনি কৰি আমি এটা sentenceক অন্য tense লৈ নিব পাৰো ।

There are three main Tenses:-

  1. The Present
  2. The Past
  3. The Future

The Present

  There are four present tense forms in English:

Tense Form
Present indefinite: I work
Present continuous: I am working
Present perfect: I have worked
Present perfect continuous: I have been working


     Verb ৰ ৰুপটো যদি “খাওঁ”, “খোৱা”, “খাৱ”, “খা”, নাইবা “খাওঁক” ৰুপত থাকে, ইংৰাজীত এনেবোৰ বাক্যক Present Indefinite Tense ৰ বাক্য বুলি কোৱা হয় । The  present indefinite  is a verb tense with two main uses. We use the simple present tense when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly. (বৰ্তমান কোনো এটা কমা কৰি থকা বুজাবলৈ আৰু অভ্যাস বশতঃ কৰা কামবিলাকৰ বিষয়ে present indefinite ত কোৱা হয় )

(ক) মই খাওঁ                       —      I eat.

(খ) তুমি খোৱা                     —      You eat.

(গ) তই খাৱ                       —      You eat.

(ঘ) তেওঁ খায়                      —      He eats.*

(ঙ) তেওঁলোকে খায়             —      They eat.

*Present indefinite tense ত subject যদি third person singular number হয়, তেনেহ’লে verb ৰ লগত s নাইবা es যোগ কৰিব লাগে । Depending on the person, the present indefinite  tense is formed by using the root form or by adding ‑s or ‑es to the end.

  1. Rana reads in class v. (Read+s=reads)
  2. He comes here every day. (Come+s=comes)
  3. The bus goes to Mangaldai every day. (Go+es=goes)


ঠিক সেইদৰে subject টো যদি third person singular number হয়, তেনেহ’লে have ৰ সলনি has হয় ।

  1. Arup has a pen.
  2. She has gone.
  3. It has been raining since yesterday.*

*It ক third person singular number বুলি ধৰি লোৱা হয় ।


Person তিনিবিধ ।

First person:                                    I, We.

Second person:                                 you.

Third person:                                      যাৰ বিষয়ে কোৱা হয়, সেয়াই   third person.

He is my brother, Sugar is sweet, The boy were playing.

Pranjal is reading, Guwahati is beautiful.


Number দুইবিধ । Singular number আৰু Plural number. এটা বস্তু, এজন মানুহ, এখন ঠাই – মুঠতে এটা হ’লে singular হয় আৰু এটাতকৈ বেছি হ’লেই plural হয় ।

Singular Number – I, he, she, it, the boy, sugar, water, God, the school etc.

Plural Number – We, they, the girls, the schools etc.

Uncountable noun বিলাকক আমি third person singular number বুলি ধৰি লওঁ – rain, dust, air, love, water etc. গতিকে ইহতৰ লগত is/was/has ইত্যাদি ব্যৱহাৰ হয় ।

First-person singular: I write

Second-person singular: You write

Third-person singular: He/she/it writes (note the ‑s)

First-person plural: We write

Second-person plural: You write

Third-person plural: They write


Habitually অভ্যাস বশতঃ কৰা কামবিলাকৰ বিষয়ে present indefinite ত কোৱা হয় ।

I often go to their home.

He eats rice in the morning.

I go to school every day.

Your sister speaks English well.

Birds fly in the sky.

He attends the office daily at ten.

The Present Indefinite Tense is used often with adverbs of frequency like ‘often’, ’usually’, ’generally’, ’daily’, ’once a week’, ‘every month’, ‘every year’ etc.


God is good.

The earth is round.

Man is mortal.

Present Indefinite Tense ৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত dose ব্যৱহাৰ:

     The formula for asking a question in the  present indefinite  is dose + [subject] + [root form of verb] Subject যদি third person singular number হয় আৰু বাক্যটোত যদি auxiliary verb নাথাকে তেনেহ’ল present indefinite ত main verb ৰ লগত s নাইবা es যোগ দিব লাগে । এনেকুৱা এটা বাক্যক প্ৰশ্নলৈ ৰুপান্তৰিত কৰিবলৈ হ’লে বাক্যটোৰ সন্মুখত dose বহুৱাব লাগে আৰু main verb ৰ লগত থকা s নাইবা es উঠাই দিব লাগে ।

He comes here every day.              Does he come here every day?

Raju lives in Guwahati.                   Dose Raju live in Guwahati?

His sister plays tennis.                      Dose his sister play tennis?


    The formula for making a  present indefinite verb negative is does + not + [root form of verb]. You can also use the contraction  doesn’t instead of  does not. Third person singular number ৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত doesn’t হব । আৰু main verb ৰ লগত থকা s নাইবা es উঠাই দিব লাগে ।

Raju comes every day.                    Raju doesn’t come every day.

She likes sweets.                               She doesn’t like sweets.

Present Indefinite Tense ৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত do ব্যৱহাৰ:

Subject যদি third person singular number নহয়, তেতিয়া এনে বাক্যক present indefinite tense ৰ sentence ক প্ৰশ্নলৈ ৰুপান্তৰিত কৰিবলৈ হ’লে বাক্যটোৰ সন্মুখত do বহুৱাব লাগে ।

You like music.                                            Do you like music?

They live here.                                             Do they live here?


I like sweets.                                    I don’t like sweets.

We live in Guwahati.                    We don’t live in Guwahati.

You know.                                          You don’t know.